Korean Journal of Clinical Geriatrics

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Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19, World Health Organization

Mild illness Patients uncomplicated upper respiratory tract viral infection may have non-specific symptoms such as fever, fatigue, cough (with or without sputum production), anorexia, malaise, muscle pain, sore throat, dyspnea, nasal congestion, or headache. Rarely, patients may also present with diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. The elderly and immunosuppressed may present with atypical symptoms. Symptoms due to physiologic adaptations of pregnancy or adverse pregnancy events, such as dyspnea, fever, GI-symptoms or fatigue, may overlap with COVID19 symptoms.
Pneumonia Adult with pneumonia but no signs of severe pneumonia and no need for supplemental oxygen.
Severe pneumonia Adolescent or adult: fever or suspected respiratory infection, plus one of the following: respiratory rate >30 breaths/min; severe respiratory distress; or SpO2≤93% on room air.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Onset: within 1 week of a known clinical insult or new or worsening respiratory symptoms.
Chest imaging (radiograph, CT scan, or lung ultrasound): bilateral opacities, not fully explained by volume overload, lobar or lung collapse, or nodules.
Origin of pulmonary infiltrates: respiratory failure not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload. Need objective assessment (e.g. echocardiography) to exclude hydrostatic cause of infiltrates/oedema if no risk factor present.
Oxygenation impairment in adults (17, 19): ∙ Mild ARDS: 200 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 a≤300 mmHg (with PEEP or CPAP≥5 cmH2O, ornon-ventilated) ∙ Moderate ARDS: 100 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2≤200 mmHg (with PEEP≥5 cmH2O, or non-ventilated) ∙ Severe ARDS: PaO2/FiO2≤100 mmHg (with PEEP≥5 cmH2O, or non-ventilated) ∙ When PaO2 is not available, SpO2/FiO2≤315 suggests ARDS (including in non-ventilatedpatients). (Invasively ventilated): OI≥16 or OSI≥12.3.
Korean J Clin Geri 2020;21:54-64 https://doi.org/10.15656/kjcg.2020.21.2.54
© 2020 Korean J Clin Geri