Korean Journal of Geriatrics & Gerontology

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Table. 4.

Table. 4.

Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration in female and male participants

Female Male
Simple logistic regression Multiple logistic regression Simple logistic regression Multiple logistic regression
Odds ratio (95% CI) P Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P Odds ratio (95% CI) P Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P
Hyperuricemia
No Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Yes 1.23 (0.93-1.62) 0.147 0.97 (0.71-1.32) 0.832 0.68 (0.53-0.86) 0.001 0.70 (0.54-0.90) 0.006
Age (year)
40 to <60 Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
60 to <80 4.93 (4.11-5.91) <0.001 3.58 (2.78-4.61) <0.001 3.18 (2.67-3.78) <0.001 2.60 (2.08-3.24) <0.001
≥80 6.89 (4.93-9.62) <0.001 4.27 (2.80-6.51) <0.001 4.26 (2.99-6.06) <0.001 3.15 (2.08-4.79) <0.001
Education
Elementary school or less Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Middle school 0.80 (0.62-1.02) 0.074 1.28 (0.96-1.70) 0.095 0.74 (0.56-0.98) 0.034 0.95 (0.70-1.28) 0.727
High school 0.39 (0.32-0.47) <0.001 1.06 (0.80-1.39) 0.700 0.55 (0.44-0.70) <0.001 0.96 (0.72-1.26) 0.749
College or above 0.19 (0.15-0.25) <0.001 0.60 (0.42-0.87) 0.006 0.33 (0.26-0.42) <0.001 0.65 (0.48-0.88) 0.005
Household income
Low Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Mid-low 0.54 (0.43-0.67) <0.001 0.89 (0.70-1.12) 0.320 0.65 (0.51-0.83) 0.001 0.86 (0.66-1.12) 0.271
Mid-high 0.37 (0.30-0.47) <0.001 0.83 (0.64-1.09) 0.177 0.59 (0.45-0.76) <0.001 1.00 (0.75-1.35) 0.978
High 0.37 (0.29-0.46) <0.001 1.01 (0.77-1.33) 0.917 0.45 (0.35-0.59) <0.001 0.86 (0.64-1.16) 0.332
Alcohol intake (g/day)
0 Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
<16 0.43 (0.36-0.52) <0.001 0.81 (0.67-0.98) 0.027 0.59 (0.43-0.82) 0.002 0.76 (0.53-1.08) 0.127
16-40 0.16 (0.08-0.30) <0.001 0.35 (0.18-0.71) 0.004 0.60 (0.42-0.86) 0.005 0.81 (0.55-1.20) 0.289
>40 0.12 (0.04-0.39) <0.001 0.25 (0.07-0.88) 0.031 0.54 (0.37-0.78) 0.001 0.77 (0.51-1.16) 0.213
Smoking
Never smoked Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Ex-smoker 0.48 (0.29-0.82) 0.007 0.71 (0.41-1.26) 0.245 1.26 (1.00-1.58) 0.050 1.24 (0.97-1.58) 0.081
Current smoker 0.51 (0.32-0.83) 0.006 0.85 (0.49-1.45) 0.541 0.93 (0.73-1.18) 0.537 1.12 (0.87-1.45) 0.389
Physical activity
Low Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Moderate 0.85 (0.70-1.02) 0.085 0.95 (0.78-1.16) 0.593 1.09 (0.91-1.31) 0.347 1.13 (0.94-1.37) 0.183
High 0.43 (0.28-0.66) <0.001 0.64 (0.41-1.01) 0.058 1.01 (0.75-1.36) 0.954 1.19 (0.87-1.63) 0.268
Resistance exercise (/week)
0 times Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
1-3 times 0.69 (0.51-0.94) 0.020 1.03 (0.74-1.44) 0.860 0.74 (0.58-0.94) 0.015 0.82 (0.64-1.05) 0.122
≥4 times 1.01 (0.74-1.39) 0.948 1.13 (0.82-1.56) 0.440 1.32 (1.07-1.64) 0.011 1.14 (0.90-1.44) 0.281
Abdominal obesity
No Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Yes 1.42 (1.20-1.69) <0.001 0.91 (0.75-1.12) 0.375 0.91 (0.76-1.09) 0.327 0.92 (0.76-1.11) 0.380
Elevated fasting glucose
No Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Yes 1.37 (1.17-1.60) <0.001 1.04 (0.88-1.24) 0.654 1.03 (0.87-1.22) 0.745 0.94 (0.78-1.12) 0.487
High triglycerides
No Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Yes 1.05 (0.86-1.28) 0.612 0.91 (0.73-1.14) 0.421 0.76 (0.63-0.92) 0.004 0.95 (0.78-1.16) 0.625
Low HDL-cholesterol
No Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Yes 1.27 (1.08-1.49) 0.004 0.94 (0.78-1.12) 0.486 0.91 (0.75-1.10) 0.308 0.91 (0.75-1.12) 0.388
Elevated blood pressure
No Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
Yes 1.98 (1.67-2.35) <0.001 1.30 (1.08-1.58) 0.007 1.14 (0.97-1.35) 0.120 1.12 (0.94-1.34) 0.210
Estimated GFR*
≥90 Reference - Reference - Reference - Reference -
60 to <90 1.43 (1.22-1.68) <0.001 0.94 (0.79-1.12) 0.503 1.25 (1.05-1.48) 0.010 1.10 (0.92-1.33) 0.293
<60 3.49 (2.42-5.05) <0.001 1.32 (0.88-1.98) 0.186 2.32 (1.56-3.45) <0.001 1.40 (0.88-2.23) 0.152

*Estimated GFR are represented in units of mL/min/1.73 m2. P values were obtained by logistic regression model for complex survey design. HDL, high-density lipoprotein; GFR, glomerular filtration rates.

Korean J Geriatr Gerontol 2023;24:104-114 https://doi.org/10.15656/kjcg.2023.24.3.104
© 2023 Korean J Geriatr Gerontol