Korean Journal of Geriatrics & Gerontology

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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Characteristics of the studies

Author, year Study population Age of inclusion* Intervention group Control group Weeks Outcome measures Source of the paper
1 Li F, 2005 [19] Healthy older adults ≥70 Twenty-four forms of the classical Yang style TC Stretching 26 Fall counts, functional balance (BBS, Dynamic Gait Index, FRT, SLS),physical performance (50-foot speed walk and up & go),fear of falling (SAFE) doi: 10.1093/gerona/60.2.187
2 Tsang WW, 2004 [20] Healthy older adults 69.1 (Mean) The Ng style TC No intervention (general education) 4 or 8 Balance measurement by computerized dynamic posturography; sensory organization test, dynamic standing balance (limits of stability test), center of pressure doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000121941.57669.BF
3 Wolf SL, 1996 [21] Healthy older adults ≥70 One hundred and eight form TC Computerized balance training; no intervention (routine exercise level) 15 Strength (manual muscle test of hip, knee and ankle, grip strength), flexibility, cardiovascular endurance (12-minute walk test), body composition, instrumental ADLs, psychosocial wellbeing (CES-D), fall events doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1996.tb01432.x
4 Wolfson L, 1996 [12] Healthy older adults ≥75 Short-term training: balance; strength; balance and strength training
Maintenance program: low intensity training with brief TC supplement
No intervention (education) followed by brief TC training 12-week short-term training followed by 24-week maintenance program Balance (losses of balance during sensory organization testing, functional base of support, single stance time), muscle strength (summed isokinetic torque of eight lower extremity movements), gait velocity doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1996.tb01433.x
5 Taylor D, 2012 [22] Older adults at risk of falls ≥65 Modified TC program twice a week vs once a week Lower limb exercise 20 Fall events, functional mobility (TUG), Dynamic balance (step test), lower limb muscle strength (30-second chair stand test) doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03928.x
6 Faber MJ, 2006 [23] Frail older adults in long-term care centers 63-98 (Range) Seven therapeutic elements of TC Functional walking; no intervention 20 Fall events, mobility (POMA), performance based physical function (walking speed, timed chair stands test, TUG, FICIST-4 balance test), disability (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale) doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.04.005
7 Wolf SL, 2000 [24] Transitionally frail older adults in the facilities ≥70 Twenty-four simplified TC No intervention (wellness education) 48 Fall events, function (FRT, BBS, SLS, three consecutive chair stands, 10-minute walk test), behavior (FES, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, sickness impact profile, CES-D, MMSE) doi: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51552.x.
8 Nowalk MP, 2001 [25] Ambulatory older adults in long-term care facilities ≥65 TC with behavioral and psychotherapeutic
Modulation of the fear of falling
Individualized and progressive strength-training and conditioning program; no intervention 96 Muscle strength and mobility (chair-stand time, 20-foot walk time, grip strength, quadriceps and hip flexor strength), cognitive assessments (MMSE), depression (Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale), function (Instrumental ADL, Barthel index of ADLs), nutritional screening initiatives https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11527475/
All residents were provided to basic enhancement program (team management and three educational programs)
9 Nnodim JO, 2006 [26] Older adults with mild balance impairment in the senior centers and housing facilities ≥65 Twelve unique sequences from TC the Yang short form Combined balance and step training 10 Static balance (tandem stance, unipedal stance), gait (maximal step length, Rapid step test), TUG for balance and gait doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00971.x
10 Tousignant M, 2012 [16] Older adults at high risk for a fall with multiple disabilities, admitted to geriatric hospital ≥65 Eight-form BADUAN-JIN TC Conventional physical therapy 15 Balance (BBS, foam and dome test), gait (TUG), fear of falling (SAFE), functional autonomy, self-actualization (measure of actualization of potential), self-efficacy (general self-efficacy scale) doi: 10.3109/09638288.2011.591891
11 Hackney ME, 2008 [27] Parkinson’s disease ≥40 TC of the Yang short style of Cheng Manching No intervention 13 Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Motor Subscale 3, balance (BBS, tandem stance test, SLS), functional mobility (TUG), gait (standard forward and backward walking; stride length, velocity, functional ambulation profile), gait endurance (6-minute walk test) doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.02.005
12 Li F, 2012 [28] Parkinson’s disease 40-85 Six-TC movements integrated into an eight-form routine Resistance training; stretching 24 Postural stability (maximum excursion, directional control by computerized dynamic posturography, FRT), gait (stride length, velocity), knee muscle strength, mobility (TUG), fall events doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1107911
13 Voukelatos A, 2007 [29] Parkinson’s disease ≥60 Various TC programs mainly sun-style, Yang-style, and mixture of several styles No intervention 16 Fall events, balance measures including sway, leaning balance (maximal balance range, coordinated stability test), lateral stability (maximal lateral sway), and choice stepping reaction time doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01244.x
14 Cheon SM, 2013 [30] Parkinson’s disease 64.2 (Mean) Twelve movements form Sun-style TC Combined stretching and strengthening exercise; no intervention control 8 Parkinsonism symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale), daily activity (Schwab and England scale), depressive symptoms (Beck’s Depression Inventory), disease-specific quality of life (Bore’s PD QoL scale), functional fitness (Rikli and Jones), muscle strength (chair-stand test, arm-curl test), flexibility (back-scratch, sit-and-reach test), agility (1.5 m up-and-go test), aerobic endurance (6-minute walk test) doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2013.9.4.237
15 Hartman CA, 2000 [15] Lower limb osteoarthritis 49-81 (Range) Nine-form Yang style TC No intervention (Usual physical activities and routine care) 12 Self-efficacy (arthritis self-efficacy), quality of life (Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale), lower extremity functional mobility (one-leg stand time, 50-foot walking speed, time to rise from a chair) doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2000.tb03863.x
16 Zheng G, 2015 [31] University students 16-25 Twenty-four forms of simplified TC No intervention 12 Balance (Pro-kin system), flexibility (sit and reach test), Cardio-pulmonary fitness (electronic step test instrument,electronic vital capacity instrument), vital signs (blood pressure and resting heart rate), psychological assessment (self-efficacy, stress, attention, self-esteem, quality of life, etc) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132605

*In cases where the inclusion criteria regarding participants’ age were not specified, the average age or age range of the participants is provided based on the available data in the respective studies.

TC, Tai Chi; BBS, Berg Balance Scale; FRT, Functional Reach Test; SLS, Single leg stance, SAFE, survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly; ADL, activities of daily living; CES-D, Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; TUG, timed up and go; POMA, performance oriented mobility assessment; FICIST, the frailty and injuries: cooperative studies of intervention techniques; FES, Falls Efficacy Scale; MMSE, mini-mental state examination.

Korean J Geriatr Gerontol 2024;25:60-71 https://doi.org/10.15656/kjgg.2024.25.1.60
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