search for




 

Aging and Endocrine System
Korean J Clin Geri 2018 Jun;19(1):1-8
Published online June 30, 2018;  https://doi.org/10.15656/kjcg.2018.19.1.1
Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Clinical Geriatrics.

Junghyun Noh

Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea
Received June 4, 2018; Revised June 22, 2018; Accepted June 26, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
The endocrine system is known to be involved to an aging process by gene mutations of endocrine signaling pathways. Complex changes multiple hormones within the endocrine system also occur in aging individuals. Changes in the concentration of hormones cause clinical symptoms and also impact health and disease. Hormone deficiencies with aging, result in vasomotor sypmptoms, fatigue, psychological symptoms, poor libido, decreased bone mass and lean body mass, and increased fat mass and insulin resistance. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effects of hormonal supplements on reversing or slowing down the aging process. This review explores the role of the endocrine system during this aging process and the changes of various hormones and resulting clinical significances in aging individuals.
Keywords : Endocrine system, Hormones, Aging
References
  1. Christensen K, Doblhammer G, Rau R, Vaulpel JW. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead. Lancet 2009;374:1196-208.
    CrossRef
  2. Masoro EJ. Overview of caloric restriction and ageing. Mech. Ageing Dev 2005;126:913-22.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Russell SJ, Kahn CR. Endocrine regulation of ageing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2007;8:681-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kimura KD, Tissenbaum HA, Liu Y. Ruvkun G. daf-2, an insulin receptor-like gene that regulates longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 1997;277:942-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Holzenberger M, Dupont J, Ducos B, Leneuve P, Géloën A, Even PC, et al. IGF-1 receptor regulates lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress in mice. Nature 2003;421:182-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Brown-Borg HM, Borg KE, Meliska CJ, Bartke A. Dwarf mice and the ageing process. Nature 1996;384:33.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Katic M, Kennedy AR, Leykin I, Norris A, McGettrick A, Gesta S, et al. Mitochondrial gene expression and increased oxidative metabolism: role in increased lifespan of fat-specific insulin receptor knock-out mice. Aging Cell 2007;6:827-39.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Batrinos ML. The aging of the endocrine hypothalamus and its dependent endocrine glands. Hormones 2012;11:241-53.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Lee SS, Kennedy S, Tolonen AC, Ruvkun G. DAF‑16 target genes that control C. elegans life-span and metabolism. Science 2003;300:644-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Oh SW, Mukhopadhyay A, Dixit BL, Raha T, Green MR, Tissenbaum HA. Identification of direct DAF-16 targets controlling longevity, metabolism and diapause by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Nature Genet 2006;38:251-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Giannakou ME, Goss M, Jünger MA, Hafen E, Leevers SJ, Partridge L. Long-lived Drosophila with overexpressed dFOXO in adult fat body. Science 2004;305:361.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Kurosu H, Yamamoto M, Clark JD, Pastor JV, Nandi A, Gurnani P, et al. Suppression of aging in mice by the hormone Klotho. Science 2005;309:1829-33.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. El Khoudary SR, McClure CK, VoPham T, KarvonenGutierrez CA, Sternfeld B, Cauley JA, et al. Longitudinal assessment of the menopausal transition, endogenous sex hormones, and perception of physical functioning: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2014;69:1011-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women:principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2002;17:321-33.
  15. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs B, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. J Am Med Assoc 1998;280:605-13.
    CrossRef
  16. Riggs BL, Melton LJI. Involutional osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1676-86.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Nordin BE, Wishart JM, Clifton PM, McArthur R, Scopacasa F, Need AG, et al. A longitudinal study of bone-related biochemical changes at the menopause. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2004;61:123-30.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Kiel DP, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PW, Moskowitz MA. Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmenopausal women. The Framingham Study. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1169-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Freedman RR. Menopausal hot flashes: mechanisms, endocrinology, treatment. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014;142:115-20.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. Janicki SC, Schupf N. Hormonal influences on cognition and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2010;10:359-66.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Pugh KR, Fulbright RK, Skudlarski P, Mencl WE, et al. Effect of estrogen on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal women during working memory tasks. J Am Med Assoc 1999;281:1197-202.
    CrossRef
  22. Marioribanks J, Farquhar C, Roberts H, Lethaby A. Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;1:CD004143.
  23. Morley JE, Kaiser FE, Perry HMI, Patrick P, Morley PM, Stauber PM, et al. Longitudinal changes in testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metabolism 1997;46:410-3.
    CrossRef
  24. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR. Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:724-31.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Vermeulen A. Androgen replacement therapy in the aging male — a critical evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:2380-90.
    Pubmed
  26. Veldhuis JD, Zwart A, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A. Muting of androgen negative feedback unveils impoverished gonadotropin releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretory reactivity in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:529-35.
    CrossRef
  27. Harman SM, Tsitouras PD. Reproductive hormones in aging men. I. Measurement of sex steroids, basal luteinizing hormone, and Leydig cell response to human chorionic gonadotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:35-40.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Bremner WJ, Vitiello MV, Prinz PN. Loss of circadian rhythmicity in blood testosterone levels with aging in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;56:1278-81.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Araujo AB, Wittert GA. Endocrinology of the Aging Male. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;25:303-19.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  30. Corpas E, Harman SM, Blackman MR. Human growth hormone and human aging. Endocr Rev 1993;14:20-39.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. Dobado-Berrios PM, Ruiz-Navarro A, Almaden Y, Malagon MM, Garrido JC, Ramirez-Gutierrez JL, et al. Heterogeneity of growth hormone (GH)-producing cells in aging male rats:ultrastructure and GH gene expression in somatotrope subpopulations. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1996;118:181-91.
    CrossRef
  32. Corpas E, Harman SM, Pineyro MA, Roberson R, Blackman MR. Continuous subcutaneous infusions of growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone 1-44 for 14 days increase GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels in old men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:134-8.
    Pubmed
  33. Russell-Aulet M, Jaffe CA, Mott-Friberg R, Barkan AL. In vivo semiquantification of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) output in humans: evidence for relative GHRH deficiency in aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3490-7.
    CrossRef
  34. Vahl N, Jorgensen JO, Jurik AG, Christiansen JS. Abdominal adiposity and physical fitness are major determinants of the age associated decline in stimulated GH secretion in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:2209-15.
    Pubmed
  35. Carroll PV, Christ ER, Bengtsson BA, Carlsson L, Christiansen JS, Clemmons D, et al. Growth hormone deficiency in adulthood and the effects of growth hormone replacement: a review. Growth Hormone Research Society Scientific Committee. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:382-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  36. Blackman MR, Sorkin JD, Munzer T, Bellantoni MF, Busby-Whitehead J, Stevens TE, et al. Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and men:a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2002;288:2282-92.
    CrossRef
  37. Giannoulis MG, Sonksen PH, Umpleby M, Breen L, Pentecost C, Whyte M, et al. The effects of growth hormone and/or testosterone in healthy elderly men: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:477-84.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  38. Mariotti S, Franceschi C, Cossarizza A, Pinchera A. The aging thyroid. Endocr Rev 1995;16:686-715.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  39. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, et al. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:489-99.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  40. Boelaert K. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2013;9:194-204.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  41. Yang LB, Jiang DQ, Qi WB, Zhang T, Feng YL, Gao L, et al. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: an updated meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Endocrinol 2012;167:75-84.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  42. Boelaert K, Torlinska B, Holder RL, Franklyn JA: Older subjects with hyperthyroidism present with a paucity of symptoms and signs: a large cross-sectional study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:2715-26.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  43. Gussekloo J, van Exel E, de Craen AJ, Meinders AE, Frolich M, Westendorp RG: Thyroid status, disability and cognitive function, and survival in old age. JAMA 2004;292:2591-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  44. Roberts CG, Ladenson PW. Hypothyroidism. Lancet 2004;363:793-803.
    CrossRef
  45. Choi HS, Park YJ, Kim HK, Choi SH, Lim S, Park DJ, et al. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in two population based-cohort: Ansung and KLoSHA cohort in Korea. J Korean Thyroid Assoc 2010;3:32-40.
  46. Franklyn JA: The thyroid - too much and too little across the ages. The consequences of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013;78:1-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  47. Parker CR Jr, Slayden SM, Azziz R, Crabbe SL, Hines GA, Boots LR, et al. Effects of aging on adrenal function in the human: responsiveness and sensitivity of adrenal androgens and cortisol to adrenocorticotropin in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:48-54.
    Pubmed
  48. Van CE, Leproult R, Kupfer DJ. Effects of gender and age on the levels and circadian rhythmicity of plasma cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:2468-73.
  49. Seeman TE, Robbins RJ. Aging and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to challenge in humans. Endocr Rev 1994;15:233-60.
    Pubmed
  50. Bergendahl M, Iranmanesh A, Mulligan T, Veldhuis JD. Impact of age on cortisol secretory dynamics basally and as driven by nutrient-withdrawal stress. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2203-14.
    Pubmed
  51. Dennison E, Hindmarsh P, Fall C, Kellingray S, Barker D, Phillips D, et al. Profiles of endogenous circulating cortisol and bone mineral density in healthy elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3058-63.
    CrossRef
  52. Purnell JQ, Brandon DD, Isabelle LM, Loriaux DL, Samuels MH. Association of 24-hour cortisol production rates, cortisol-binding globulin, and plasma-free cortisol levels with body composition, leptin levels, and aging in adult men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:281-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  53. Perrini S, Laviola L, Natalicchio A, Giorgino F. Associated hormonal declines in aging: DHEAS. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28(3 Suppl):85-93.
    Pubmed
  54. Gurnell EM, Chatterjee VK. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 2001;145:103-6.
    CrossRef
  55. Baulieu EE, Thomas G, Legrain S, Lahlou N, Roger M, Debuire B, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and aging: contribution of the DHEAge study to a sociobiomedical issue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:4279-84.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef

 

June 2018, 19 (1)